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Darwin stringybark

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Sapwood pale yellow or white, fairly wide and not always clearly demarcated from the reddish-brown or pale red heartwood.  Texture (referring to vessel size) medium.  Grain mainly straight.  The figure is not prominent, and growth rings occasionally tending to distinct. The species is widely distributed through northern Australia from Queensland to Western Australia north of latitude 16oS; trees grow from close to sea level up to 300m.  Best growth occurs on moderately deep, well drained sandy soils.  Represents one of the larger species in the Northern Territory which produces good milling timber.  The species is also recommended for tropical forestry.  

Suitability for pulp and paper and composites:

The basic density of the species is higher than what paper manufacturers generally desire, and CSIRO studies have indicated that pulp yields from natural stands are low. The high basic density also makes the species less desirable for composite wood products such as laminated veneer lumber and medium density fibreboard but quite suitable for solid-wood products.

Wood characteristics:

Timber is of high density similar to that of the ironbarks making it hard, heavy and stiff, with exceptionally good impact properties.  It is not easy to work with machine operations and it is difficult to cut with hand tools.  Material tends to ride on planer cutters; straighter grain usually produces good surfaces.  A 15o cutting angle is recommended for stock with interlocked grain.  Quartersawn boards dry fairly rapidly provided mild drying schedules are used.  The timber is fissile (easy to split), and glues fairly well.  Wearing and weathering properties are good.  Sapwood is lyctus susceptible, heartwood occasionally attacked by termites.  Sapwood is probably permeable, but the heartwood is extremely difficult to impregnate.  The wood is often used in hewn or as rounds.

REFERENCES:

1  W.G. Keating and E. Bolza. (1982) Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Vol. 1., South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press

2  W.J. Smith, W.T. Kyneston, M.L. Cause and J. G. Grimmett (1991) Building timbers.  Technical Pamphlet No. 1, Queensland Forest Service, Department of Primary Industries 

3  B. Budgeon (1981)/ The shrinkage and density of some Australian and South-East Asian timbers.  Tech paper (2nd series) No. 38, Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Australia

4  E. Bolza and N.H. Kloot (1963) The mechanical properties of 174 Australian timbers.  Tech paper No. 25, Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Australia 

5  T. J. Venn (2003) Potential markets for logs and sawn timber from Darwin stringybark forests of Cape York Peninsula.  Marketing of farm-grown timber in tropical North Queensland : conference proceedings, 18 June 2003

FOOTNOTES:

SHRINKAGE - tangential and radial shrinkages after reconditioning, Values before reconditioning are slightly higher indicating low degree of wood collapse

DENSITY - Seasoned - after reconditioning

MOISTURE CONDITION - No specific data is available for seasoned material.  The seasoned values shown are estimated from corresponding green values from the Strength grouping classification as per (Ref 1)

 

Appearance

Sapwood pale yellow or white, fairly wide and usually clearly demarcated from the reddish-brown or pale red heartwood.  Texture (referring to vessel size) medium.  Grain mainly straight.  The figure is not prominent, and growth rings occasionally tending to distinct.

Common Applications

Heavy structural; heavy flooring; mine timber; ship and boat building; handles and ladders; agricultural implements; joinery; sleepers; poles and piles; cross arms.

Common Form

Sawn

Workability

It is not easy to work with machine operations and it is difficult to cut with hand tools.  Material tends to ride on planer cutters; straighter grain usually produces good surfaces.  A 15o cutting angle is recommended for stock with interlocked grain.

Origin of Timber

QLD

Availability - Further Information

On Cape York Peninsula there are about 1.7 Mha of eucalypt forests with commercially attractive timber species on land tenures other than National Park. The Queensland Department of Primary Industries - Forestry (DPI-Forestry) considers the stands of timber in the Darwin stringybark (Eucalyptus tetrodonta) forests on Cape York Peninsula (CYP) to be the largest remaining forest resource in Queensland.

Availability - Further Information

Native Forest

Shrinkage

Very Low Low Medium High Very High

Tangential :

4.90%

Radial:

Unit Movement Tangential:

3.80%

Unit Movement Radial:

Strength Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium High

Medium

Reasonably Low

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

Seasoned:

SD1

SD2

SD3

SD4

SD5

SD6

SD7

SD8

Stress Grade

Structural
No. 1
Structural
No. 2
Structural
No. 3
Structural
No. 4
Structural
No. 5

Unseasoned:

F22

F22

F17

F14

F11

Seasoned:

F34

F27

F22

F17

F14

Density per Standard

Seasoned:

1090kg/m3

Unseasoned:

0kg/m3

Joint Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

J1

J2

J3

J4

J5

J6

Seasoned:

JD1

JD2

JD3

JD4

JD5

JD6

Colour

  White, yellow, pale straw to light brown Pink to pink brown Light to dark red Brown, chocolate, mottled or streaky
   

Mechanical Properties

Modulus of Rupture - Unseasoned:

145

Modulus of Rupture - Seasoned:

108

Modulus of Elasticity - Unseasoned:

16.3

Modulus of Elasticity - Seasoned:

18.7

Maximum Crushing Strength - Unseasoned:

73.8

Maximum Crushing Strength - Seasoned:

81

Impact - Unseasoned:

73.8

Impact - Seasoned:

Toughness - Unseasoned:

High - 25 Nm and above

Toughness - Seasoned:

High - 25 Nm and above

Hardness - Unseasoned:

9.5

Hardness - Seasoned:

Durability

Low Moderate Reasonably High High
(0 - 5 yrs) (5 - 15 yrs) (15 - 25 yrs) (more than 25 yrs)

In-Ground:

(0 - 7 yrs) (7 - 15 yrs) (15 - 40 yrs) (More than 40 yrs)

Above ground:

(0 - 20 yrs, usually < 5) (21 - 40 yrs) (41 - 64 yrs) (More than 60 yrs)

Marine Borer Resistance:

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility:

Susceptible

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility - Other:

Termite Resistance:

Not Resistant

Fire Properties

Joinery

Timber joinery products offer a classic, unique and stylish touch to any interior or exterior design. The products are produced for a variety of internal applications including door and window frames, cabinetry, skirtings, mouldings and architraves. When looking to the outdoors, joinery products range from decorative eaves and posts to eye-catching railings.

Many timber species are suitable for joinery products and care should be taken in selecting the perfect timber for the particular product and its intended finish. Rare and exotic species such as Teak and Rosewood can generate pieces of outstanding beauty but material cost and availability are also important considerations.

Commercially available species like Tasmanian oak, Australian cypress, spotted gum and the like, often make the more practical choice, with the added benefit that they can be easily matched with other timber products within the building, like flooring.

Solid timber for joinery products is generally supplied as ‘clear finish grade' but ‘paint grade' options are available and these are usually comprised of a composite material like MDF or glulam.

A large number of specialist suppliers and producers offer the consumer extensive choice of profiles for all of the most common and popular joinery products. Choice is in many cases, limited only by imagination.

Cabinetry is often associated with joinery and most typically includes, cupboards, benches and other similar ‘built in' furniture. Like joinery, cabinetry is generally specified as either paint or clear finish grade and naturally for clear finish grade timbers, appearance and surface finish are critical in achieving a successful application.

 

Stairs, Exterior

All exterior stairs serve a functional purpose, but the choice of timber in the application will turn a functional building element into an aesthetically pleasing feature. And while the construction of stairs is demanding, the investment of time will be returned, with a well constructed timber staircase typically lasting decades.

Exterior stairs are usually built from treated softwood and durable hardwoods and typically finished with paint. The construction procedure described here applies to most general type stairs of either conventional or contemporary construction.

When it comes to stairs there is a multitude of variations available for application depending on the structural requirements of the building. This guide discusses the most commonly specified stair types.

Stairs, Interior

Interior staircase work is considered a specialised area of carpentry and joinery as its construction requires high levels of workmanship, detail and accuracy. Many interior stairs are built from quality joinery timber, cut and seasoned especially for staircases. Interior stairs differ considerably in design, from simple straight flights, commonly used in domestic work, to more elaborate stairs, constructed purposely as stand out features in public and commercial buildings.

The construction procedure described here applies to most general type stairs of either conventional or contemporary construction.

Windows

Timber windows are usually supplied as joinery items with a primer or base coat, as factory glazed components requiring site finishing or as fully glazed and finished windows.

Demand is ever increasing for high performance windows that promote efficient energy use in buildings. Careful window selection and placement is rightly viewed as a means of reducing demand for artificial light and climate control. Timber is an ideal material when considering these aspects as it is a material that is light, strong, natural and renewable. It can be moulded to any shape, so will meet the thermal, acoustic and design requirements of even the most unusual window.

This guide discusses the common elements involved in specifying, constructing and installing timber windows

Flooring

Whether for structural or finished flooring applications, timber offers durability, versatility and adaptability. The warmth, strength and natural beauty of timber flooring has proved enduringly popular in a wide variety of interior settings.

Timber flooring is a timeless product, offering a warmth and natural beauty largely unmatched by other flooring options. This article provides an overview of the installation of solid timber strip flooring over bearers and joists, timber based sheet flooring products and concrete slabs. Timber flooring is typically supplied as either solid timber or laminated wood products, made from layers of bonded timber. It fits together with a tongue and groove joint and once in place, is sanded and finished. There is a wide variety of species to select flooring from and the right species for a given application will be dependent on numerous factors. Information relating to species selection, environmental assessment, finish selection and recommended maintenance routines are all provided in this section.

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